PINANG, s. This is the Malay word for Areca, and it is almost always used by the Dutch to indicate that article, and after them by some Continental writers of other nations. The Chinese word for the same product—pin-lang—is probably, as Bretschneider says, a corruption of the Malay word. (See PENANG.)

[1603.—“They (the Javans) are very great eaters—and they haue a certaine hearbe called bettaile (see BETEL) which they vsually have carryed with them wheresouer they goe, in boxes, or wrapped vp in a cloath like a sugar loafe: and also a nut called Pinange, which are both in operation very hott, and they eate them continually to warme them within, and keepe them from the fluxe. They do likewise take much tabacco, and also opium.”—E. Scott, An Exact Discovrse, &c., of the East Indies, 1606, Sig. N. 2.

[1665.—“Their ordinary food … is Rice, Wheat, Pinange. …”—Sir T. Herbert, Travels, 1677, p. 365 (Stanf. Dict.).]

1726.—“But Shah Sousa gave him (viz. Van der Broek, an envoy to Rajmahal in 1655) good words, and regaled him with Pinang (a great favour), and promised that he should be amply paid for everything.”—Valentijn, v. 165.

PINDARRY, s. Hind. pindari, pindara, but of which the more original form appears to be Mahr. pendhari, a member of a band of plunderers called in that language pendhar and pendhara. The etymology of the word is very obscure. We may discard as a curious coincidence only, the circumstance observed by Mr. H. T. Prinsep, in the work quoted below (i. 37, note), that “Pindara seems to have the same reference to Pandour that Kuzak has to Cossack.” Sir John Malcolm observes that the most popular etymology among the natives ascribes the name to the dissolute habits of the class, leading them to frequent the shops dealing in an intoxicating drink called pinda. (One of the senses of pendha, according to Molesworth’s Mahr. Dict., is ‘a drink for cattle and men, prepared from Holcus sorghum’ (see JOWAUR) ‘by steeping it and causing it to ferment.’) Sir John adds: ‘Kurreem Khan’ (a famous Pindarry leader) ‘told me he had never heard of any other reason for the name; and Major Henley had the etymology confirmed by the most intelligent of the Pindarries of whom he enquired’ (Central India, 2nd ed. i. 433). Wilson again considers the most probable derivation to be from the Mahr. pendha, but in the sense of a ‘bundle of rice-straw,’ and hara, ‘who takes,’ because the name was originally applied to horsemen who hung on to an army, and were employed in collecting forage. We cannot think either of the etymologies very satisfactory. We venture another, as a plausible suggestion merely. Both pind-parna in Hindi, and pindas-basnen in Mahr. signify ‘to follow’; the latter being defined ‘to stick closely to; to follow to the death; used of the adherence of a disagreeable fellow.’ Such phrases would aptly apply to these hangers-on of an army in the field, looking out for prey. [The question has been discussed by Mr. W. Irvine in an elaborate note published in the Indian Antiq. of 1900. To the above three suggestions he adds two made by other authorities: 4. that the term was taken from the Beder race; 5. from Pindara, pind, ‘a lump of food,’ ar, ‘bringer,’ a plunderer. As to the fourth suggestion, he remarks that there was a Beder race dwelling in Mysore, Belary and the Nizam’s territories. But the objection to this etymology is that as far back as 1748 both words, Bedar and Pindari, are used by the native historian, Ram Singh Munshi, side by side, but applied to different bodies of men. Mr. Irvine’s suggestion is that the word Pindari, or more strictly Pandhar, comes from a place or region called Pandhar or Pandhar. This place is referred to by nati ve historian s, and seems to have been situated between Burhanpur and Handiya on the Nerbudda. There is good evidence to prove that large numbers of Pindaris were settled in this part of the country. Mr. Irvine sums up by saying: “If it were not for a passage in Grant Duff (H. of the Mahrattas, Bom bay reprin t, 1 57), I should have been re ady to maintain that I h ad pro ved m y case. M

  By PanEris using Melati.

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